Témoignages : espacement des tirs

 

J'ai analysé assez exhaustivement les témoignages relatifs à l'espacement des tirs.

Sur 69 personnes ayant exprimé une opinion sur cet espacement, j'en élimine deux qui ont témoigné en faveur de 4 tirs. Reste 67 pour lesquels on a les données suivantes:

  1. 7 (soit 10,5%) estiment que les 2eme et 3eme tirs sont plus espacés que le 1er et le 2eme;

  2. 20 (soit 30%) estiment que les tirs sont espacés de manière égale;

  3. 4 (soit 5,7%) affirment que les deux derniers tirs sont quasi simultanés;

  4. 35 (soit 52%) affirment que les deux derniers tirs étaient plus proches que les deux premiers;

Les catégories 3 et 4 sont délibérément séparées : l'analyse des témoignages de la catégorie 3 montrent d'une part qu'ils ne peuvent absolument pas être confondus avec la catégorie 4, et par ailleurs qu'il y a une chance importante pour que ces témoins ont été trompés par des réverbérations.

Au total, on constate effectivement une belle quantité de témoignage dont on peut sans hésiter les classer dans la catégorie 4.

Mais on constate aussi que plus de 40% des témoins penchent pour un espacement égal ou un plus grand délai pour les deux derniers tirs.

Difficile donc de tirer une conclusion.

Elément supplémentaire : 108 témoignage ont été analysés qui parlent des tirs et de leur nombre. Sur ceux-ci, donc, 39 ne donnent pas d'information sur l'espacement. Comment interpréter cette absence d'information? Que le témoin ne peut rien dire ou que le témoin ne voit rien de remarquable à dire? Et dans ce dernier cas, cela nous indique-t-il que le témoin a entendu des tirs également espacés? Ou cela ne nous indique-t-il rien du tout?

Enfin, un élément de réflexion : la plupart des gens se trouvaient là dans une situation détendue ou joyeusement excitée, et se sont soudain trouvés plongés dans un drame terrible.

Toute personne ayant vécu ne fût-ce qu'un accident de voiture peut témoigner du coup de fouet provoqué par l'adrénaline quand on se trouve soudain dans une situation stressante et dangereuse, et du curieux effet sur le temps : celui-ci semble s'étirer, ralentir. Nous savons que peut-être une ou deux secondes se sont passées, mais nous avons l'impression que ces secondes se sont étirées, et nous avons des images claires et comme "gelées" qui s'imposent à nous lorsque nous repensons à ces instants.

La question se pose dès lors de l'effet qu'a pu avoir sur la perception, et sur le témoignage, le choc que les témoins ont subi au moment où ils se sont rendu compte qu'on tirait. Beaucoup se sont rendu compte qu'il s'agissait de tirs au 2eme coup de feu. C'est donc là, en général, que l'on peut placer le soudain stress et le coup de fouet de l'adrénaline.

Il est évident que ce stress soudain n'est pas neutre sur la perception que ces témoins ont eu du temps passé entre le 2eme et le 3eme tir.

Ralentissement du temps, donc logiquement on devrait avoir des témoignages nombreux sur un espacement plus grand.

Or c'est l'inverse qui se passe!

Il faut donc en conclure que, conscients de l'effet de ralentissement apparent du temps, les témoins ont "corrigé" leur perception. Mais à quel point ont-ils corrigé leur perception? Ont-ils tous une compréhension absolue du temps qui leur permet de corriger adéquatement ou.....ont-ils sur-corrigé?

Je n'ai pas de conclusion à cet égard.

J'ai cependant, d'une part, des témoins plutôt partagés, et d'autre part, un élément, le temps, extrêmement difficile à manipuler si on considère les circonstances qui entourent le témoignage.

Donc ma conclusion est que je ne dispose d'aucun élément, sur base de ces témoignages, pour tirer une conclusion ferme sur l'espacement effectif des tirs.

 

Prénom

Nom

Référence

Espacement

Citation

Cecil

Ault

(24 H 534)

1-2--3

 

Nellie

Connally

WC 4 H 147

1-2--3

It seemed to me that there was less time between the first and the second than between the second and the third

Gayle

Newman

(WC 19 H 488-Decker exhibit 5323)(CE 1431 WC 22 H 842)

1-2--3

 

Kenneth

O’Donnell

WC 7 H 448

1-2--3

the first two came almost simultaneously, came one right after the other, there was a slight hesitation, then the third one.

Linda

Willis

WC 7 H 498

1-2--3

I heard one. Then there was a little bit of time, and then there were two real fast bullets together

Steven

Wilson

WC 22 H 685

1-2--3

It is my opinion there was a greater space of time between the second and third shots than between the first and second. The three shots were fired within a matter of less than five seconds.

George

Davis

CE 1424 , WC 22 H 837

1-2-3 (?)

All shots were very close together

Richard

Dodd

CE 1420 , WC 22 H 835

1-2-3 (?)

He stated he did not know how many shots were fired, but that the sounds were very close together.

Barbara

Rowland

WC 6 H 177

1-2-3 (?)

[statement] I heard a report and thought it was a backfire[,] then in a few seconds another report sounded and in another few seconds[,] the third report (testimony] and then we heard two more shots, and they were closer than the first and second (the statement is earlier)

Marrion

Baker

WC 3 H 247.

1-2-3

It seemed to me like they just went bang, bang, bang; they were pretty well even to me.

Charles

Brehm

CE 1425 WC 22H

1-2-3

BREHM said that a third shot followed and that all three shots were relatively close together. BREHM stated that he was in military service and he has had experience with bolt-action rifles, and he expressed the opinion that the three shots were fired just about as quickly as an individual can manoeuvre a bolt-action rifle, take aim, and fire three shots

Richard

Carr

Clay shaw trial

1-2-3

they were fired from a semi-automatic or either --A: Well, BOOM-BOOM-BOOM, just in that order.

Clifton

Carter

WC 7 H 474

1-2-3

"I distinctly remember three shots. There was an interval of approximately 5 to 6 seconds from the first to the last shot, and the three shots were evenly spaced."

Malcolm

Couch

WC 6 H 153

1-2-3

 

Jesse

Curry

WC 4 H 172.

1-2-3

He said that he heard the first shot when the President’s car was mid-way between Houston Street and the overpass; that at the second shot the car was about 25-30 feet further along; and the third occurred after it had moved another 15-20 feet. Some infer that in making this distinction of the distances travelled between the shots, he described the last two shots as being closer together as measured by the distance the President’s car  travelled between shots. But this relies on an exact measurement and forgets that the car DID slow down.

Thomas

Dillard

WC 6 H 164.

1-2-3

 

Ronald

Fischer

WC 6 H 191

1-2-3

 

Emmett

Hudson

FBI report (WC 7 H 565).

1-2-3

 

Dolores

Kounas

WC 22 H 846

1-2-3

(did not understand they were shots) there were three of these noises which she knows were shots equally spaced by a few seconds

Lawrence

O’Brien

WC 7 H 162

1-2-3

[Is it your recollection that these sounds were evenly spaced?] That is my impression

Samuel

Paternostro

CE 2105, WC 24 H 536.

1-2-3

“He said he estimated several seconds, possibly four or five or more, elapsed between the first report and the second and third reports”... “then when the other reports followed in quick succession”

Eddie

Piper

WC 6H 382

1-2-3

I heard one shot, and then the next shot went off-the one that shot him and I got on up and went on back, back where they make coffee at the end of the counter where I could see what happened and before I could get there, the third shot went off

James

Romack

WC 6 H 280

1-2-3

 

James

Underwood

WC 6 H 167

1-2-3

 

Jack

Watson

WC 22 H 522 - WC 19 H 522 (Decker exhibit).

1-2-3

 

Phillip

Willis

WC 7 H 495.

1-2-3

the three shots were fired approximately about 2 seconds apart

Buell Wesley

Frazier

(WC 2 H 234)+(Clay Shaw Trial, Feb 13, 1969)

1--2/3

WC: I heard a sound (..) and so I thought one of them motorcycles backfired (…)  but it wasn't just a few seconds that, you know, I heard two more of the same type of, you know, sounds, and by that time people was running everywhere. Trial: "Shortly after there were two more in rapid succession. When I heard the second noise, the third was followed nearly just right back to back."

William

Greer

WC 2 H 118

1--2/3

 

George

Hickey

(CE1024, 18 H 731)

1--2/3

I heard two reports which I thought were shots and that appeared to me completely different in sound than the first report and were in such rapid succession that there seemed to be practically no time element between them

Roy

Kellerman

WC 2 H 176

1--2/3

Let me give you an illustration, sir, before I can give you an answer. You have heard the sound barrier, of a plane breaking the sound barrier, bang, bang? That is it

Warren

Taylor

WC 18 H 782

1-2/3(?)

In the instant that my left foot touched the ground, I heard two more bangs

Eugene

Boone

WC 3 H 292.

1--2-3

“there seemed to be a pause between the first shot and the second shot and third shots-a little longer pause.

Lee

Bowers

WC 6 H 287.

1--2-3

 

Earle

Cabell

WC 7 H 479

1--2-3

There was a longer pause between the first and second shots than there was between the second and third shots. (,,,)approximately 10 seconds elapsed between the first and second shots, with not more than 5 seconds having elapsed until the third one.(2 to 1 ratio)

Rose

Clark

CE 2100, WC 24 H 533 (FBI report).

1--2-3

“She noted that the second and third shots seemed closer together than the first and second shots”.

Roger

Craig

WC 6 H 260

1--2-3

 

James

Crawford

WC 6 H 172.

1--2-3

 

Harold

Elkins

WC 19 H 540 (Decker exhibit 5323).

1--2-3

a “couple of seconds elapsed” after the first and “then two more shots ring out”

Clyde

Haygood

WC 6 H 296

1--2-3

The last two were closer than the first. In other words, it was the first, and then a pause, and then the other two were real close.”

Robert H.

Jackson

WC 2 H 159

1--2-3

after the third shot the second two shots seemed much closer together than the first shot, than they were to the first shot. (...) I would say to me it seemed like 3 or 4 seconds between the first and the second, and between the second and third, well, I guess 2 seconds, they were very close together. It could have been more time between the first and second. I really can't be sure.

James

Jarman Jr.

WC 3 H 204.

1--2-3

And then the second shot was fired, and then the third shot was fired right behind the second one.

Ladybird

Johnson

WC 5 H 565

1--2-3

there was a sharp loud report--a shot. Then a moment and then two more shots in rapid succession

Winston

Lawson

WC 4 H 353

1--2-3

There was one report, and a pause, then two more reports closer together, two and three were closer together than one and two

Billy

Lovelady

CE 2003 - WC 24 H 214 pge 36

1--2-3

“there was a slight pause after the first shot and then the next two was right close together”

Mary Ann

Mitchell

WC 6H 175

1--2-3

 

Joe

Molina

WC 6 H 368

1--2-3

“Of course, the first shot was fired then there was an interval between the first and second longer than the second and third.”

Luke

Mooney

WC 3 H 282.

1--2-3

The second and third shot was pretty close together, but there was a short lapse there between the first and second shot. (mentions echoes)

Lillian

Mooneyham

CE 2097, WC 24 H 531.

1--2-3

"Following the first shot, there was a slight pause and then the second and third shots sounding closer together"

Arnold

Rowland

WC 19 H 494 (Decker exhibit)? (CE 2003-WC 24 H 200 pge 55)

1--2-3

Then approximately 5 seconds, 5 or 6 seconds, the second report was heard, 2 seconds the third report

William

Shelley

WC 6 H 329.

1--2-3

“Well, I heard something sounded like it was a firecracker and a slight pause and then two more a little bit closer together.

Edward

Shields

WC 7 H 394.

1--2-3

“I heard one shot and then a pause and then this repetition-two shots right behind the other”.

John

Solon

CE 2105, WC 24 H 535.

1--2-3

“First shot, pause, two shots, then echoes of the shots. Mr. Solon advised he would judge that approximately five and one-half seconds was taken for all three shots.”

Forrest

Sorrels

WC 21 H 548 and WC 7 H 345.

1--2-3

There was to me about twice as much time between the first and second shots as there was between the second and third shots.”

Pearl

Springer

CE 2087, WC 24 H 523.

1--2-3

”She recalled that after the first shot there was a pause, then two more shots were fired close together.”

Allan

Sweatt

WC 19 H 531 (Decker exhibit 5323).

1--2-3

“I heard a shot and about 7 seconds later another shot and approximately 2 or 3 seconds later a third shot”.

Ruth

Thornton

CE2107, WC, 24 H 537

1--2-3

She heard a report she beleived was a backfiring then 2 more reports followed in quick succession

Seymour

Weitzman

WC 7 H 105

1--2-3

First one, then the second two seemed to be simultaneously. There was a little period in between the second and third shot.

Bonnie Ray

Williams

WC 3 H 175

1--2-3

there was two shots rather close together. The second and the third shot was closer together than the first shot and the second shot, as I remember

Mary

Woodward

CE2084, WC, 24 H 520.

1--2-3

She heard a loud noise. There seemed to be a pause of a few seconds and then there were two more loud noises…

Ralph

Yarborough

WC 7 H 439

1--2-3

After what I took to be about three seconds, another shot boomed out, and after what I took to be one-half the time between the first and second shots (calculated now, this would have put the third shot about one and one-half seconds after the second shot

Rufus

Youngblood

WC 18 H 767 - WC 2 H 150

1--2-3

There seemed to be a longer span of time between the first and the second shot than there was between the second and third shot

C.M.

Jones

WC 19 H 512 (Decker exhibit).

1--2-3 (?)

“I heard an explosion followed in about 3 to 5 seconds later two more explosions" (impossible to draw a conclusion)

Sam

Kinney

CE 1024, WC 18 H 731

1--2-3 (?)

there was a shot. There was a second of pause and then two more shots were heard, (difficult to conclude)

Victoria

Adams

WC 6 H 386

1--2-3(?)

And we heard a shot, and it was a pause, and then a second shot, and then a third shot.

Mrs

Cabell

WC 7 H 486

1--2-3(?)

 

Joe

Rich

WC 18 H 800

1--2-3(?)

This Secret Service man in the front seat with me made the remark, "What the hell was that" and about that time I heard two more shots

S.M.

Holland

WC 6H 239

1-2-3/4

 

Royce

Skelton

WC 6H 236

1-2--3--4

 

 

 

 

 

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