The Blazonry of the Lancasters of Cumbria

The Lancasters of Cumbria descend from a very ancient family who were at their peak of power and influence in the very early centuries after the Norman invasion. Hence, they would have been amongst the first to associate arms with individuals and families. For those more familiar with later heraldry therefore, the Lancaster arms presents some interesting new perspectives. Firstly, we are dealing with very primal patterns, not quarterings which attempt to tell complex stories of ancestry, and secondly, the rules concerning the heritability of arms were very flexible. Families took up the blazonry, it seems, of their allies, and then dropped them again for another.

    1. The basic Lancaster arms

The basic Lancaster arms as they are remembered now are the ones we find from about the 13th century on with several variations. They must have developed from earlier and more flexible forms.

They are White ("argent" meaning silver), which is the background, with Red ("gules") on top, and use two of the basic patterns of heraldry, two bars and a canton. Below I have played with images from an 1894 Glossary by James Parker, and then compared them to some real arms modified from scans reproduced on the British History Online website...

Two Bars

A Canton

In England, early members of the families, Mauduit, Martin, and Mainwaring bore these arms: Argent, two bars gules. These were latter embellished in various ways.

For examples outside of Britain I can quote p.37 of John Woodward's 1896 Treatise:

"Argent, two bars gules, is the coat of the Barons DERVAL (Brittany); LORENZ ; and MASSOW in Saxony ; the Counts von ROTENBURG; the Lordships of ISENBURG (quartered by the Princes von WIED) ; and of
BREUBURG (quartered by the Counts of LÖWENSTEIN and ERBACH) ; and of many other noble families."

These are now also the arms of the town of Barre-en-Cevenne in France, apparently based upon the arms of an ancient lord of that place. I like this story from an article on the internet:

"Later in the 11th century, during the first crusade, John van Arckle, a knight of Holland, was traveling in the Holy land. He came across a group of German knights, one of whom wore a coat of arms (argent two bars gules) identical to his own. The German grabbed and threw Arckles banner to the ground. Arckle petitioned to the leaders of the Crusade, who found both parties to have independantly originated the coat of arms. They allowed a trial by combat, which Arckle won, and went on to fight for nearly ten years in Palestine."

Bars are sometimes said to be derived from the FESS, a simple single bar covering the middle third of the shield, which would look like this:

This would be "Argent a fess gules". Apparently a man named Thomas de Kent once bore these arms, as recorded in the Dering Roll of Arms.

To quote Woodward again, looking for real continental examples:

"Argent, a fess gules, is the coat of several illustrious houses, those of BÉTHUNE, Ducs de SULLY, 1606; the Counts von MANTEUFFEL in Prussia and Russia; the ST. MAUR, Ducs de MONTAUSIER, Pairs de France, 1664; the Ducs de SAN SEVERING, and the Counts de MARSI of Naples ; and the Barons TAETS D'AMERONGEN in the Netherlands. A D'AUBIGNY bore it in the Crusade of 1205."

Although I mention the fess here in deference to the theory that it might be related to bars in early times, I am not convinced of the value of this approach. Multiple bars are themselves a very simple pattern. Indeed they are sometimes thought to have derived from the real plates of reinforcement on early shields. In any case it came to be said that they represent a bar to entry and attack - a defence.

In early arms we also find no strict consistency with regards to how many bars appear, especially in cases where there are more than two bars.

In modern arms at least, when there are two bars, they are supposed to be evenly spaced over the height of the shield, each filling one fifth of it.

When there are more than two bars, a distinction is made in later times (but certainly not in ancient times) when there are an even number of coloured bars. In these cases the top and bottom of the shield will have different colours, so it is no longer possible to define the base colour. Instead, the shield is said to be "BARRY" with two alternating colours. Using White and Red, here is a simple example:

Cantons are not normally used on their own, so the above is not a real example.

Woodward found a continental example, a family named Terweiler, who bore, Or, a canton sable.

A CANTON is supposed to occupy one-third, usually the right-hand third, of the CHIEF, which is supposed to occupy the top one-third of the field. Here is what the full CHIEF would look like Red on White:

This would be "Argent, a chief gules". In France there was a man named Piers de Champagne with these arms, and Woodward says :

"Argent, a chief gules, is the coat of the Duchy of MONTFERRAT, and of the families of D'AVAUGOUR ; SOLIGNAC; CHAUMONT (Burgundy); MENZIES in Scotland ; and WORSLEY in England."

The Canton is typically something which has been added to an older coat of arms. It is said by some that it was a badge of distinction associated with military service.

In the earliest Rolls of Arms Cantons are called QUARTERS, a term which implies a bigger section:. Here are all of the four quarters, with the first one, the one corresponding to the later "CANTON" in Red:


This would be "Argent, a quarter gules". Once again such examples are rare, but the reverse colours, "Gules, a quarter argent" were the arms of the Blencowe family.

However, the difference between a canton (measured supposedly to be one third of the top third) and a quarter (literally a quarter) seems to be more one of developing fashion. Families that once were said to use a quarter were later said to use a canton.

In both cases, the quarter or canton will merge in to any bars which are close enough, without any line showing to part them. (I have suitably adjusted the British History Online designs.)

 

 

The one on the left would be "Barry of 6, argent and gules". The one on the right would be "Argent three bars gules" which means one more white section is added at the bottom. Both of these descriptions were used for the Multon family, who we shall discuss further below.

Putting together the two bars and the canton...

...the following is without anything in the canton. These arms were used by an English family named "de Bois". It was also used by some Corbet families, and perhaps a Fuller family of East Anglia as well as a family named Bynley. The last family seems to have normally used black in the place of red. The others we will discuss more.

In the north of England this is one of the basic formats found in many families in Kendal and Furness. It is occasionally reported to have been used by the Berdsey family of Berdsey (more often they added a "maunch argent" to the canton), the Broughton family of Broughton (more often they added a "cross or" to the canton), the Kirkby family of Kirkby Ireleth (normally they added a "cross moline" to the canton), and a Coupland family (they normally had a garter of sable, or black, over this construction).

According to S.H. Lee Washington, the Stricklands, D'Eyncourts and at least one branch of the Flemings of Cumbria are all reported as having used such arms in early times, though they settled on other arms later. Papworth also report that the Salkelds (normally vert, a fret argent) have been recorded as using barry of 4, gules and argent.

 

Charging the Canton...

For further variation, early shields with cantons often added symbols onto them. Here are some common ones which we will encounter further below.


A MULLET, or star. Standard in England was with five points and no piercing. It is thought that the origin was actually a knight's spurs, which is why they were often pierced. Here is one pierced:


 


An ESTOILE. In France, a six pointed star was standard, and so amongst Anglo-Normans 6-pointed mullets were often confused more generally with estoiles.Here is a 6 pointed mullet, un-pierced...


 


A LION. This lion is in the position known as "PASSANT GUARDANT" which means he is walking and watching. In France, the home of such terminology, it was not common to show the lion's face like this, and apparently for this reason this type of lion is called a "LION OF ENGLAND". Another possible reason for this name is that it is the same type of lion which was not only popular, but used by the Angevin Kings, from at least the time of Richard Lionheart. This symbol entered Lancaster shields about the same time. One final confusion: in England itself at that time the medieval heralds referred to this animal as a "LEOPARD".


A CINQUEFOIL, or 5 petalled flower. It was very commonly used in the early middle ages. Most 5 petalled flowers are in the rose family, which also includes many edible fruits such as apples and bramble-berries. The modern plant called a cinquefoil is a wild relative of the strawberry. In later shields the rose (originally a 5 petalled flower) became popular. It came to be depicted something like this...


 


A MAUNCH. This was a lady's sleeve. It perhaps entered heraldic symbolism as a reference to a knight's love? Or perhaps because he had won in tournaments?


A MARTLET. Many birds were used in heraldry, although it is often difficult to tell them apart. There is no real bird called a martlet, but the term in heraldry seems to apply to a generic swift, martin or swallow type of bird. Martlets seems to have been one of the most common small birds chosen in heraldry.



2. How many groups of allied families are we looking at?

For those familiar with the regions and families mentioned above, three basic groups of families may become apparent:

  1. First, and most relevant to us, there are families who, at least around the time when arms were being established, were under the influence of the Lancasters. This is an observation associated with Thomas West in his "Antiquities of Furness". There is no significant controversy about this grouping as a whole, only concerning particular details.

  2. Second, and possibly related to the first, there is a similar group, based on the Multon arms. Out of this developed an obvious question of whether the two are related. In his 1942 article, "The Arms of the de Lancasters, Lords of Kendal," in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, S.H. Lee Washington, wrote that it was a "generally accepted theory" that "the de Lancaster shield was based on that of the powerful Cumbrian house of Multon." As Lee Washington pointed out, this theory has problems, but may lead to interesting new ideas. We shall discuss further below.

  3. There is also the confusing matter of the Bois family, which is perhaps also the source of the Corbet and other similar arms in southern England. Although the patterns we are discussing are very common ones, it does seem extraordinary just how close the Bois family arms, and even the variants, are to the Lancasters and their allies.

2.1. The core of the Kendal and Furness group associated with the de Lancaster family

Starting with the least controversial grouping, Thomas West noticed an old example where the Greystoke family allowed a soldier who served under them to take up a variant of their arms, thus explaining the dispersion of very similar types of arms around the Furness area which he was studying. The most notable group of arms was the one we are discussing:

Of the ancient Furness families, five give the same arms, with distinctions; and are connected with the ancient barons of Kendal, who gave argent, two bars gules, a lion passant guardant, in a canton of the first. Broughton, of Broughton, gave the same, the canton being charged with a cross or. Bardsey, of Bardsey, the same, charging the canton with a maunch argent. So Preston, of Preston Patrick, and afterwards of Furness, gave the same, and charged the canton with a cinquetoil or. Kirkby, of Kirkby, gives the same, charging the canton with a cross moline or. Lowick, of Lowick, gave argent, two bars gules; in chief, three mullets of the second. These were the ancient and honourable Furness families, who by these arms claimed connection and alliance with the barons of Kendal.

West also remarked on some similar groups:

At the beginning of the 19th century West's book was a classic, and became a template for further regional studies. The passage about heraldry did not go un-noticed either.

The subject was taken up about a century later with increased vigour in 1874 in CWAAS by Richard Ferguson, who added Coupland to the list of West, as well as suggesting that Martindale and Mulcaster might be part of it. The problem was that Curwen saw no less than 15 different groups, several of which looked like branches from a single tree. In the case of Martindale and Mulcaster, he could see that they might belong with his Lancaster of Kendal group number 9, or else with his group number 2, including Multon, Denton, Austhwaite, and Derwentwater, a group associated with Egremont in Cumberland.

Then in 1906, J. F. Curwen wrote a new article in CWAAS, building upon this same foundation. I have used the collection of arms there to pick out our "hard core" of arms from the two possibly related old Cumbrian groups: the Lancaster of Kendal group and the Multon of Egremont group. Once again concerning the British History Online images, all marked as such, and also the 1894 James Parker images, please note that most have been heavily edited by me. In some cases I have used bits and pieces from the Heraldic Clipart website.

I have added families who obviously can be included in the core, in purple.

MULTON Baron of Egremont

Argent 3 Bars gules

 

These are for example the arms of Sir Thomas from around 1300. As mentioned above, these are sometimes described as Barry of 6. H.S. Lee Washington went further in the other direction of noting similarities to the de Lancaster arms, by claiming that the Multon arms sometimes bore only two bars. He is quite likely correct.

The Multons originally came from Lincolnshire, and moved to Cumberland after they married the heiresses of the Lucy family who had previously held Egremont. As explained below, the Moultons or Multon arrived in Cumberland after the Lancasters, and we do not know of any arms from them before then.

MULTON Baron of Gilsland

Argent 3 Bars gules, with a Label of 5 points

 

The label was a later invention for showing junior branches. Gilsland is in Cumberland.

Other variations are of course also found for the de Moultons, but this is one of the earliest and most often mentioned.

MULCASTER

Barry of 6, argent and gules, over all a Bend azure

 

Sometimes described, for example, as Argent, four bars gules, which by "modern"standards is technically different. Keeping in mind that Multon was sometimes also described as barry, this is basically just a simple variant from Multon.
Mulcaster is today called Muncaster, and is in Cumberland, in Bootle ward. The family who owned the manor and used these arms and this surname are a branch, or branches, of the Penningtons. But there are other arms for Pennington.
The arms shown here seem to be those for Robert, son of William de Mulcaster recorded in 1334 - a knight in Edward III's time. But other arms are recorded for Mulcasters which have more bars, and showed other variations. The earliest perhaps had scallops on the blue "bend".

MARTINDALE

Barry of 6, argent and gules, over all a Bend sable

 

Keeping in mind that Multon was sometimes also described as barry, this is basically just a simple variant from the basic Cumberland pattern found in Moulton.

The surname is interesting also because Martindale is a part of the inland parish of Barton St Michael in Westmorland, which is not associated with Moultons or other Cumberland families we mention, but extremely strongly associated with the Lancasters. However I read in Nicolson and Burn that this manor came to it's later overlords the Dacres from a marriage with the Multons.

DE MARTINDALE

A Bend azure, and Argent 2 Bars gules

 

Here we see how bars (in these de Martindale arms) and a "barry of 6" could sometimes be treated as the same?

AUSTHWAITE (or AWSTHWAITE) On Stanley Coat

Extinct temp. Edw. III. The heiress married Stanley.

Gules 2 Bars argent, and 3 Estoiles pierced or in chief

 

 

Another old Cumberland family, the manor of Austhwaite or Awsthwaite later being referred to as Dalegarth, which is on the river Esk upstream from Muncaster. The Magna Britannica in British History Online gives "Gules, two bars and a canton, Arg. in chief, 3 mullets of 6 points, pierced Or". Apparently there is a common confusion between 6-pointed mullets and the estoile. In any case the stars are pierced and have 6 points.

DE LANCASTER

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules, a lion passant guardant or

A branch of the de Bois family, the Boyes family of Claybrooke, had the same with a silver lion.

 

This was used by the Lancaster Barons of Kendal, at least as far back as William de Lancaster II, around 1180. And presumably in order to show a link back to them, the Lancasters of Rainhill, and the Lancasters of Howgill also used these arms. The Lancasters of Milverton differenced them with a crescent in chief.

Early variants which were apparently not intended to indicate true difference are sometimes reported, such as having the wrong number of bars, or the lion in a different stance.

LANCASTER of Sockbridge

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules a mullet argent

 

The mullet was also often reported to be Gold or Yellow (or). See next.

Various

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules a mullet argent

 

  1. Lancaster of Sockbridge (sometimes Mullet is White). Lancaster of Brampton. Lancasters of Hartsop

  2. Some Derwentwaters, (A Cumbrian surname)

  3. A Beckingham family in Essex and Berks,

  4. Reportedly used by yet another branch of the de Bois family.

  5. KIRKBY of Kirkby Thore (not a well known family, but certainly one living near the Lancasters)

Sir James LANCASTER of Basingstoke

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules a mullet argent pierced

 

Sir James was knighted by James I, and so he was a late creation compared to many others we are discussing. Clearly the heralds had looked up the Lancaster precedents. I wonder if there was any known connection to the Lancasters of Westmorland.

LANCASTER of Richmond, in Yorkshire,

Argent two bars gules on a canton of the second a cinquefoil of the first


 

I know nothing about this family, but I have added it to the list from CWAAS because it is clearly a Lancaster variant from the same group, and it appears in both Burke's and Papworth.

Various

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules, a cinquefoil or 


 

  1. PRESTON of Preston Richard and Preston Patrick

  2. JOHN DERWENTWATER

  3. WILLIAM LANCASTER of Hartsop (Papsworth p.21) who appears in records from about 1409 until about 1458, and has not been securely connected to any other tree yet.

  4. CORBET (some of them)

  5. SIR JOHN DE LANCASTER, Lord of Grisedale, Rydal, Stanstead etc. (normally associated with the "lion passant guardant" but this apparently appeared in one old roll)

THOMAS LANCASTER, a bannaret at the siege of Calais about 1346

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules, a rose or

 


 

The shield of Thomas Lancaster, concerning whom I know very little (except that he was apparently one of the 68 knights who came with his own company, rather than one of the 975 in larger bodies; he was awarded a large income by the king which was to come from Frampton priory in Dorset, and that he apparently asked the King to pardon Nicholas de Chambre for his war efforts.) is actually described as having a yellow flower, perhaps a rose.

Papworth also records DERWENTWATER, DRINKWATER, and DAWEST (I think the last is a transcription error?)

BROUGHTON of Broughton-in Furness

Extinct temp. Hen. VI.

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules a cross flory or


 

Not always described as a flory cross. Sometimes reported as having no charge at all in the canton, or having a cross argent.

KIRKBY of Kirkby Ireleth ("Kirkby of Kirkby")

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules, a cross moline or


 

Also reported to be used by a Headworth family.

This Kirkby is in Furness, Cumbria. This Kirkby family descend from Roger son of Orm son of Ailward, and had strong links to the earliest Lancasters, it seems. Wiliam Farrer felt that one junior branch may have used the surname Lancaster, in Lancashire proper, in Parbold, Wrightington and Moston. See:

http://users.skynet.be/lancaster/Medieval%20Lancasters.html

BARDSEY

Argent 2 Bars gules, on a Canton gules a maunch argent


 

There is a useful article on this family by John F. Curwen, available on the internet:

http://books.google.com/books?id=KzZJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA175

COPELAND of Bootle.

Extinct about temp. Ric. II. The coheiresses married Hudleston, Penington, and Senhouse.

Argent 2 Bars gules, and a Canton gules, over all a Garter sable

The Magna Britannica on British History Online gives Or, two bars and a canton, Gules, over all a bend, Sable.


 

This is a Cumberland family, so very likely connected to the Multons, Lancasters, Mulcasters etc. Copeland is still a name for one of the major divisions of Cumberland.

LOWICK of Lowick. Again, not a very well known family.

Argent 2 Bars gules, and 3 Mullets gules in chief


 

Lowick was in the Furness part of Cumbria. This is identical to the arms of the Washington family, from whom George Washington descends. These arms are sometimes said to have influenced the arms of the USA. Although it was once said that the Washingtons were part of the Cumbrian group we are writing about, because an important branch married into the area in the 1300s, it now appears that their arms were local to the original home in Durham, and were shared with the Hartburnes, who seem to be the same family as the Washingtons. In about 1250, the same arms were born by Ralph d'Amundevilles of the Amundevilles of Coatham Mundeville. Hartburn and Coatham Mundeville are only about 10 miles apart according to Lee Washington. And in the late 1100s, Amundevilles and Washingtons signed some of the same charters.

DENTON of Warnel

Argent 2 Bars gules, and 3 Cinquefoils gules in chief

The Magna Britannica says the cinquefoils should be black (sable).


 

Also reported to be used by a Stockwith family.

DENTON of Cardew

Argent 2 Bars gules, and 3 Martlets gules in chief


 

Magna Britannica reports that a similar set of arms with black martins was borne by the family Aglionby, who were in Cumberland:

Aglionby of Nunnery. This ancient family was settled about the time of the conquest, at Aglionby in Warwick, still the property of their representatives. They were afterwards of Carlisle, and of Drawdykes in Stanwix, latterly of Nunnery.

A Wedon family in Bucks also had the black martlets, in the time of Edward II.

With these all before us, we can see that there is in fact nothing in the blazonry to show us that there are two groups. The so-called Multon group, if not indeed all families in the 11th and 12th centuries, were clearly inconsistent with regards to the number and type of bars in early times, and so we can not rely on such differences to teach us anything. And cantons were clearly at least sometimes used within that group and others.

On the other hand, while looking only at heraldry is clearly not enough, it does not seem unreasonable, given that a canton was supposed to be added as a mark of distinction, that the Lancaster shield with its canton, and the others with their charges in chief, all derived from arms such as exactly those of Multon. And the Multons held one of the most important Barony's in Cumbria, that of Egremont in Cumberland.

2.2 The Multon group, connected to the Kendal-Furness group?

The problem with proposing that the Multon group is the source of the arms of the Kendal-Furness-Lancaster group, is that the Multons are known to have come to the region from Lincolnshire in the south through their marriage to the de Lucy family, the heirs of William fitz Duncan. By this time many coats of arms had started to develop, including those of the de Lancasters as early as at least about 1180. The de Multons entered the area from Lincolnshire about a generation later.

Lee Washington states that "the Multons were novi homini; and no Multon arms are of record before the thirteenth century".

S.H. Lee Washington proposed that they perhaps came from someone earlier, for whom we now have no direct evidence. Such a person would be William fitz Duncan, the Lord of Egremont whose domain the Multons took over. Two de Multon brothers married two sisters who were heiresses of William fitz Duncan and Richard de Lucy (and their biological mother was actually a Morville). Alan, who took over the de Lucy possessions, also took up their arms. Does it not make sense that Lambert's arms came from William fitz Duncan? Unfortunately however, we do not know William's arms.

Lee Washington also proposed a strong connection between William Fitz Duncan, and his contemporary, William de Lancaster I. We know from the Register of St Bees that William de Lancaster I held possessions in the area of Egremont, which William fitz Duncan's base, but Lee Washington also refers to evidence, now widespread on the internet, that William de Lancaster had been castellan of Egremont even in the war year of 1138, when fitz Duncan lead the forces of Scotland. This would be fascinating, but I have found no evidence for it. Lee Washington's footnote in 1942 read "Cf. Twysden, "Decem Scriptores" (Rolls Series), 345; "Priory of Hexham" (Surtees Society), I, 163; and "Chronicles of Stephen", etc. (Rolls Series), III, 146." I have looked and these references describe William fitz Duncan's actions of 1138, I find no reference to any castellan or Egremont.

While fraught with danger, the approach is interesting. Here's a suggestion: could the de Stuteville family represent a link between some of these northern families? See the appendix.

2.3. The de Bois arms.

In May 1913 the journal called "The Antiquary" for p.187, an R. A. M. Boyce (presumably a Bois descendant) wrote that Arnold de Bois, the earliest certain member of this family was "another member of the Tail-bois family" referring to the arms on his seal, which is from an early date, somewhere in the first half of the 13th century. None other than John F. Curwen replied to Boyce in the July edition, pointing out that the similarity between the arms of Lancaster and Bois is no more evidence of a relationship than the difference between the arms of the Curwens and Lancasters is evidence that they are not related (and they did claim to be related). He might just as well have pointed out that the Taillebois arms are something different yet again. Boyce replied implying that he would be writing more on the matter. Unfortunately if he did so then this must appear in the 1914 50th edition, which I have not seen.

Families who may have been the most important blood relatives of the de Lancasters of Kendal, but who did not have related arms.

Lea of "English Lea", near Preston.

Argent, three bars sable

By all accounts this family continued a legitimate but junior male line of the original de Lancaster Barons of Kendal. They descended from Warine de Lancaster, royal falconer and a nephew of William de Lancaster I. His family changed named with their new possession, English Lea. Warine's son and heir Henry received this in exchange for Up-Litherland and Liverpool.


 

Curwen of Workington, the family descended from Ketel, son of Eldred, the uncle of William son of Gilbert, the first of the de Lancasters of Kendal. Somehow William ended up possessing places Ketel had possessed, so the connection between them was important.

Argent fretty, Gules, a chief, Azure

This is of course an example of the Millom group of arms from Cumbria, as described above.


 

Lawrence of Ashton, near Lancaster.

The Lawrences were present in the countryside around Lancaster, (Skerton, Ashton, Brantbreck, Grisehead etc) in the same places where the de Lancasters had held possessions directly. Documents show that at a certain point they took their surname from Lawrence de Lancaster, a member of the family, who had in turn been son of Thomas, who was a son of Roger. It seems possible that Thomas was an early illegitimate son of Roger de Lancaster of Rydal. (However, it is possible they descend from one Roger Conne, and just lived in Lancaster.)

Argent a cross raguly gules.

It must however be noted that this type of arms based on a cross was generally used by families descended from someone who had been on a crusade, and this family somehow developed a story that it descended from a Robert Lawrence, who crusaded with Richard Lionheart. But the paternal line leads back to Lancasters. Might this tradition have come via a wife of one of them, perhaps Thomas son of Roger?


 

Tailboys, of Cliburn, Askham and Bampton in Westmorland.

Ivo de Tailboys of Westmorland married about 1210 to a Durham heiress, and his descendants became important in Lincoln. This family is presumably related to the de Lancasters of nearby Kendal and Barton, because those Lancasters are said to have been called Taillebois before they took up the name Lancaster. An earlier Ivo de Taillebois in the 11th century is said to be the ancestor of all of them.

Argent, a saltire gules, on a chief of the second, three escallops of the first

If these arms were established in Westmorland we could suggest a relationship to many other families. The 3 scallops were used by D'Acre for example.


 



The coincidence of both name (Bois, Boys or Bosco being the second component in the name Taillebois or Tailboys) and the coat of arms does attract attention. On the other hand there are webpages claiming that Ernald de Bosco's father was a Robert de Waterville. And the surname Bosco or Bois apparently refers to his official position as an overseer of forests, and was a very common surname (many modern Atwoods, Bushs, Boyces and Woods will have had ancestors whose names were sometimes written this way for example).

2.4. Broughton of Broughton in Staffordshire

We will next go into a broader search for similar arms, but first we should separate the Broughtons, and Corbets, because these are the ones who not only have the white-and-two-bars pattern, but also the canton in red. It also seems an amazing coincidence that these Broughtons of Broughton in Staffordshire should share the surname and arms, more or less, of the above-mentioned Broughtons of Broughton in Furness (silver two bars gules on a canton gules a cross engrailed silver, versus, silver two bars gules on a canton gules a cross flory of gold). Nevertheless, both families are claimed to have been settled in those counties until back before coats of arms were well-settled - indeed back to the Domesday Book.

Papworth seems to make Brenton and Brundon variants?

2.5. The Corbets

The Corbets are said to stem from a man who came over to England in 1066 and had their main power in Shropshire. They were very numerous, so it is easy to find marriages between them and almost any family we choose. For example one branch became in involved in Scotland and Northern England. However, most of their recorded arms contain crows or ravens, reflecting their surname. But only the Hadley branch used arms which was white with two red bars and a red quarter. I have not found anyone with a theory about why, but Hadley is a long way from the area we are investigating.


3. Appendix. More links?

We have already mentioned some similar looking arms from other parts of England above. Were there any more using two bars and a canton of the same red? Papworth mentions:

Arg. two bars and a canton gu. BYNLEY,

But, this family were clearly not stuck on the colour scheme...

Arg. two bars and a canton az. BYNGLEY or BYNLEY.

Arg. two bars and a canton sa. BENLEY, BENTLEY, BENLEY, BENLY or BENTLY

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the last a cross couped.... LATIMER.

These are not like most Latimer arms.

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the last a cross crosslet fitchy of the field. MOBBERLEY.

But see...

Arg. two chev. gu. a quarter of the last a cross croslet fitchy or. MOBERLEY, Sr. John MODBURLEY, co. Chester.

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the last an escucheon of the first. MARTYN, Durham.

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the second a fleur-de-lis or. VINCENT, Firby and Warmsworth, co. York.

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the second a cross moline or. HEADWORTH.

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the first a lion pass .... BELLINGHAM (Apparently the original scroll was damaged?).

See below. Basic pattern seems to be red with white bars?

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the second a cinquefoil of the first. BECKINGHAM, co. Berks and Essex.

Arg. two bars gu. on a canton of the second a boar's head couped arg. (another or). PAKEMAN.



Coming to patterns which are more broadly on the pattern of white with red bars we are forced to examine only those, mostly very early families who had these arms unadorned. There are simply too many others. Papworth again...

Arg. two bars gu.

BERY, co. Devon. (These are famous "canting" or pun arms. The arms are "barry" like the surname. Most of the variants of this family will be seen below, where there are more bars.)

BOMFORD, co. Lancaster.

BYNDE, Sussex.

CHANEY.

DENTON.

EWER. (See Ewe below.)

FOXALI., London and Ireland.

LIMESIE.

MAINWARING, Over Peover, co. Chester, Bart., quartering az. six garbs or for KYVELIOC, Earl of Chester. MAINWARING or MANWARING, Peure, now Over Peover, co. Chester; Kermincham, co. Chester; Ightfield, co. Salop; and Whitmore, co. Stafford. MAINWARING, Oteley Park, co. Salop; and Bromborough, co. Chester, derived from Main- waring of Whitmore, quartering KINASTON. Sir Richard MANWARING, co. Chester, V. William MANWARING, P.

Walter MALDUST or MALDUIST, G. MANDUT or MANDUIT, co. Warwick, and Somerford-Manduit, co. Wilts. William MANDUYT, X. MARTIN, Athelhampston, co. Dorset,and LongMelford, Suffolk; Baronetcy, 28 May, 1667. MAUDUIT, Hans- lope, co. Buckingham. William MAUDIT, B. MAUNDUIT.

MARTIN or MARTYN, Exeter, co.Devon., derived from .Martin of Athelhampston. MARTIN, Exeter; and Kemeys, co. Pembroke; temp. Henry I. MARTIN, Hemingston, Suffolk, Colston Basset, co. Nottingham ; Anstey Pastures, co. Leicester; Worsborough, co. York. Sir William MARTIN or MARTYN, H, I, L, X. Monsire William MARTIN, Y. William MARTYN, Y. MARTYN, cp. Devon, V.

SAINT CLERE.

SOUTH, Ferraby, co. Lincoln, confirmed 22 June, 1602.

Red with 2 white bars seems too distinct from what we are searching for.

Arg. three bars gu.

BARTI.EY.

BOHUN (?).

BUSSEY, as quartered by Viscount Townshend.

CAMERON, Lochiel; the branches of Lochiel were Cameron, Letterfinlay, styled Mac-Vic-Vartin; Strone; Glenevis; Caluart; Errocht and Drimnassallie; Glendessary and Dungallon; Fassifern, etc.

CHAMPNEY.

William CREPIN, C.

COATSWORTH, Newcastle.

EGREMOND. (The seat of the de Multons, possibly just a version of Multon arms.)

GARMON.

GREY.

MARTIN, Bodmin, Cornwall; the co-heirs m. Trefusis and Winter, temp. Henry IV.

MOI.TONE, K. MOLTON or MOULTON. Tebaud de MOLETONE, A. Thomas de MOLTON, J. Sire Thomas de MOLTONE, N. Sire Thomas de MOULTON, B,I. Sir de MOULTON, Egremont, V; quartered by RATCLIFFE, Lord Fitzwalter, U. Le Sire de MOULTON, Gillesland, Y. Rafe MULTON, Egre- mond, Y. Thomas de MULTON, K.

MUSCHAMPE, Surrey.

PASHLEY, co. Berks.

SCERI.OGG, Wales. SCOWLAGE. SCOWRLAGE, V.

William SOULES, V.

WOLLACOMBE, Wollacombe, co. Devon ; the heiress m. Stafford.

Arg. three bars and a canton gu.

BRIGGS. BRYGGS.

FULLER, Rosehill Waldren; and Ash- down House, Sussex; quartering FRAYTON, ELIOTT, PARKER, and PARKER of Ratton. FULLER, Tanners Waldren, Sussex. William FULLER, Bishop of Limerick, and of Lincoln, ob. 1675. FULWER, London. FULWER, Sand- ridge Court, Surrey.

HOLLENSHED.

MULTON, V.

Gu. three bars arg.

Sir Richard BELLINGHAM, Essex; temp. Edward I, V. BERLINGHAM.

BENSTED, V.

CATEGNY.

FOXLEY.

KARKENTON or KARKINGTON. KIRKENTON, V. (See Kerketon below.)

Thomas de MOLETON, E. Thomas de MOLTON, F, J. Le Sire de MOULTON, Fraunkton, Y.

PUSEY, Pusey, co. Berks, quartering BOUVERIE.

No red canton on gu. three bars arg.

Arg. four bars gu.

FITZ-ALURED, Ireland, W.

SONLEY or SOULI.EY.

No simple 4 bar combinations with White on Red.

Arg. four bars and a canton gu.

FAIRFAX, Deeping Gate, co. Lincoln.

Gu. four bars and a canton arg.

FECBURY or FEKSBURY

No 4 bar combinations with quarters.

Above 5 bars they become "barrulets" and look quite different.

No simple Barry of four with arg. and gules, but...

Barry of four gu. and arg.

SALKELD (Definitely a Cumbrian family, and these are not their better known arms, such as Vert, a fret of 6, argent, in the "Millom group".)

MOULE, co. Northhampton

No Barry of 5 with our colours.

Barry of six arg. and gu.

Lord BARREY, Ireland, V. BARRY, Earl of Barrymore. BARRY, Lemlars, co. Cork. BARRY, Marbury Hall, co. Chester; and Foaty, co. Cork, quartering gu. on a chev. or betw. three bezants as many crosses formy fitchy sa. quarterly with Heriz. BARRY, Ballyclough, co. Cork, Lisnegar, near Rathcormac, descended from William de BARRY, who m.Angharad, daughter of Rhys-ap-Griffith. BARRY or BERY, Winscot and Bendon, co. Devon.

BAYOUSE, V.

MULTON.

Roger TAI.EBOT, A.

Barry of six gu. and arg.

Sir John BERLINGHAM, co. Essex, V.

KIRKETON or KERKETON, Kirketon, co. Lincoln, temp. Edward II.

MOIGNE.

PUSEY.

Barry of eight arg. and gu.

FTTZ-ALURED, V*. FITZ-AWRY, Ireland.

BARRY, Ireland, W.

CHAWORTH.

HUNGARY, as borne by Margaret of ANJOU, Z, 299; and by Mary of LORRAINE, Z, 5*4.

Barry of eight arg. and gu. a label of three points sa.

GOBION, co. York.

Barry of eight arg. and gu. a label of five points sa.

GOBYNS, co. York.

Barry of eight gu. and arg.

BARRY, V*.

BURY, co. Devon.

CLYNKE.

Barry of ten arg. and gu.

BARRY, Lord Barry, Z, 350.

THORNELL, Suffolk, V. (See below.)

WHINFIEI.D.

Barry of ten arg. and gu. a label of five points az.

GOBION, Gobion, co. Bedford; an heiress m. Le Boteler, temp. Edward I.

Barry of ten arg. and gu. in chief a label of nine points vert.

EWE, temp. Rich. I. (See above.)

Barry of twelve arg. and gu.

MANWARING, Chester. MENELESWARING.

STUTVILE, co. Somerset.

Barry of twelve arg. and gu. in chief a label of five points az.

SOMEBILL.

Barry of fourteen arg. and gu.

Robert de STOTEVILLE, E. STUTEVILL, Baron of Cotingham, V.

Barry of fourteen arg. and gu. a label of five points az.

Hue GOBIUN, E. The label of the second, Sir Hugh GOBYON

Barry of fourteen gu. and arg. a label of five points of the first.

GOBYON, V*.

Barry of eighteen arg. and gu. a label of five points az.

Hugo Gomon, F.

Barry arg. and gu.

BASSETT.

Patrick de CHAURCY, B.

Sir Thomas de MOLTON, H.

SMITH-BARRY, Marbury Hall, co. Chester; and Foaty, co. Cork, quartering gu. on a chev. or betw. three bezants as many crosses formy fitchy sa. with az. a fess betw. three urchins ar.

STUTEVILLE. Robert STUTTEVILE, Y.

THORNHILL, Suffolk. (See above.)

Barry arg. and gu. a label az.

Sire Huge GOBYOUN, N.

Barruly gu. and arg.

Robert STUTEVILLE, X.

Some brief examinations of the families involved shows how many of those with the simplest shields are simply those with the oldest pedigrees, and their origins seem at least for the most part unconnected. This does not mean that some hidden links can be found using heraldry in conjunction with other types of genealogical research.

MAUDUIT of Hanslope

Argent two bars gules

For some time they were Earls of Warwick. WILLIAM MALDUITH * at the time of the general survey held several lordships in Hampshire, married Maud, heiress of Michael de Hanslape, at the time of which marriage King Henry I granted the barony to William Mauduit (or Malduith) and also the office of Chamberlain to the King in his exchequer and all the lands belonging thereto, particularly the honor and castle of Porchester.

MAINWARING

 

MARTIN

Magna Britannica: Martyn, or Martin, Baron Martin, of Barnstaple and Dartington. — This ancient Norman family was at an early period of Comb Martin, and of Dartington, which Risdon calls the site of their barony, as early as the reign of Henry I. Nicholas, the fourth in descent from Martin de Tours, the founder of the family, acquired the lordship of Barnstaple and other large possessions, by marrying the heiress of Guy de Brien, by the heiress of Tracey. William, grandson of Nicholas, was summoned to parliament as Baron Martin of Barnstaple. William, the second Baron Martin, died without male issue, in 1324; his co-heiresses married Columbers, who died without male issue, and Audley. In consequence of the marriage of his father with the co-heiress of Martin, James Lord Audley inherited the baronies of Barnstaple and Dartington. Nicholas, Lord Audley, son of James, died without male issue, in 1389; his co-heiresses married Tuchet and Hilary, but by virtue of an entail, his Devonshire estates went to the crown. Younger branches are supposed to have continued the male line of the Martyn family.

DENE

Argent two bars gules with three crosses paty or on each bar.

But the DENE family more often used a fess?

The manor of Uphall was in the 14th century in the possession of the Dene family, but it is not known when they obtained it. Possibly it was the one and a half hides which Roger de Upwood held of the abbot of Ramsey in the reign of Henry I. Henry de Den performed military service in the place of William le Moigne in 1245.

DAUNDELY in Hampshire

Argent two bars gules with three crosslets or on each bar.

The manor of WEEK or WYKE or WYKE DAUNDELY may probably be represented by the 2 hides which Richer, who is generally identified with Richer de Andely, the founder of the family of that name, was holding of the bishop at the time of the Domesday Survey.

DE MOELS, DE MOULES

silver two bars gules in chief three roundels gules

Arg. two bars, G. in chief three torteauxes.

Sir Walter Treckingham wore this differenced by a black baton in 1322 at Boroughbridge. Similar arms were born by some members of the Wake family, who however more often used OR as their field colour.

MOELS or MOLIS, NICHOLAS DE (
fl. 1250), seneschal of Gascony, was perhaps a native of Hampshire. His parentage is unknown ; but a Roger de M. il is occurs in the reign of Stephen. Nicholas de Moels is first mentioned as being in the royal service in September 1215, and again in March 1217 (Cai. Hot. Claw. i. 229, 301).

Moels, Baron Moels or Mules. — Nicholas de Moels, or Molis, who married the heiress of Newmarch, in the reign of Henry III., was descended from Roger de Molis, who possessed Lew, and other estates in Devon, at the time of the Domesday survey. This Nicholas possessed Kings Kerswell by a royal grant.

SIBTHORP?

Arg. two bars Gules for Sibthorpe, impaling Sab. three crescents Arg. for Harris.

Arms—Arg. two bars Gules for Sibthorpe, impaling Sab. three crescents Arg. for Harris.

HARCOURT?

Arg. two bars gules?

'Stanmore Parva (Whitchurch)', The Environs of London: volume 3: County of Middlesex (1795), pp. 404-417. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45446&strquery='"arg, two bars, gules". Date accessed: 27 December 2007.

NOWERS of Stoke Goldington in Buckinghamshire

Argent two bars gules with three crescents gules in the chief.

William de Nowers of Gayhurst married an heiress of Stoke Goldington about 1252 or thereafter, from a Peverel. The Nowers had held Gayhurst since the 11th century.

MORTIMER of Stoke Goldington in Buckinghamshire

Argent two bars and a chief gules with three sexfoils argent in the chief.

Edmund Mortimer took over the hamlet of Eakley from Baldwin Wake in the later 13th century.

ST. LIZ of Seaton.

Argent two bars gules with three fleurs de lis gules in the chief.

Earls of Huntingdon in 1100s?