|Portability||non-portable (local universal quantification)|
|"Scrap your boilerplate" --- Generic programming in Haskell.
See http://www.cs.vu.nl/boilerplate/. This module provides
the Data class with its primitives for generic programming.
|Module Data.Typeable re-exported for convenience
|The Data class for processing constructor applications
|class Typeable a => Data a where|
The Data class comprehends a fundamental primitive gfoldl for
folding over constructor applications, say terms. This primitive can
be instantiated in several ways to map over the immediate subterms
of a term; see the gmap combinators later in this class. Indeed, a
generic programmer does not necessarily need to use the ingenious gfoldl
primitive but rather the intuitive gmap combinators. The gfoldl
primitive is completed by means to query top-level constructors, to
turn constructor representations into proper terms, and to list all
possible datatype constructors. This completion allows us to serve
generic programming scenarios like read, show, equality, term generation.
The combinators gmapT, gmapQ, gmapM, etc are all provided with
default definitions in terms of gfoldl, leaving open the opportunity
to provide datatype-specific definitions.
(The inclusion of the gmap combinators as members of class Data
allows the programmer or the compiler to derive specialised, and maybe
more efficient code per datatype. Note: gfoldl is more higher-order
than the gmap combinators. This is subject to ongoing benchmarking
experiments. It might turn out that the gmap combinators will be
moved out of the class Data.)
Conceptually, the definition of the gmap combinators in terms of the
primitive gfoldl requires the identification of the gfoldl function
arguments. Technically, we also need to identify the type constructor
c for the construction of the result type from the folded term type.
In the definition of gmapQx combinators, we use phantom type
constructors for the c in the type of gfoldl because the result type
of a query does not involve the (polymorphic) type of the term argument.
In the definition of gmapQl we simply use the plain constant type
constructor because gfoldl is left-associative anyway and so it is
readily suited to fold a left-associative binary operation over the
immediate subterms. In the definition of gmapQr, extra effort is
needed. We use a higher-order accumulation trick to mediate between
left-associative constructor application vs. right-associative binary
operation (e.g., (:)). When the query is meant to compute a value
of type r, then the result type withing generic folding is r -> r.
So the result of folding is a function to which we finally pass the
With the -fglasgow-exts option, GHC can generate instances of the
Data class automatically. For example, given the declaration
data T a b = C1 a b | C2 deriving (Typeable, Data)
GHC will generate an instance that is equivalent to
instance (Data a, Data b) => Data (T a b) where
gfoldl k z (C1 a b) = z C1 `k` a `k` b
gfoldl k z C2 = z C2
gunfold k z c = case constrIndex c of
1 -> k (k (z C1))
2 -> z C2
toConstr (C1 _ _) = con_C1
toConstr C2 = con_C2
dataTypeOf _ = ty_T
con_C1 = mkConstr ty_T "C1"  Prefix
con_C2 = mkConstr ty_T "C2"  Prefix
ty_T = mkDataType "Module.T" [con_C1, con_C2]
This is suitable for datatypes that are exported transparently.
|:: (forall a b . Data a => c (a -> b) -> a -> c b)||defines how nonempty constructor applications are
folded. It takes the folded tail of the constructor
application and its head, i.e., an immediate subterm,
and combines them in some way.
|-> (forall g . g -> c g)||defines how the empty constructor application is
folded, like the neutral / start element for list
|-> a||structure to be folded.
|-> c a||result, with a type defined in terms of a, but
variability is achieved by means of type constructor
c for the construction of the actual result type.
Left-associative fold operation for constructor applications.
The type of gfoldl is a headache, but operationally it is a simple
generalisation of a list fold.
The default definition for gfoldl is const id, which is
suitable for abstract datatypes with no substructures.
|gunfold :: (forall b r . Data b => c (b -> r) -> c r) -> (forall r . r -> c r) -> Constr -> c a|
|Unfolding constructor applications
|toConstr :: a -> Constr|
|Obtaining the constructor from a given datum.
For proper terms, this is meant to be the top-level constructor.
Primitive datatypes are here viewed as potentially infinite sets of
values (i.e., constructors).
|dataTypeOf :: a -> DataType|
|The outer type constructor of the type
|dataCast1 :: Typeable1 t => (forall a . Data a => c (t a)) -> Maybe (c a)|
Mediate types and unary type constructors.
In Data instances of the form T a, dataCast1 should be defined
The default definition is const Nothing, which is appropriate
for non-unary type constructors.
|dataCast2 :: Typeable2 t => (forall a b . (Data a, Data b) => c (t a b)) -> Maybe (c a)|
Mediate types and binary type constructors.
In Data instances of the form T a b, dataCast2 should be
defined as gcast2.
The default definition is const Nothing, which is appropriate
for non-binary type constructors.
|gmapT :: (forall b . Data b => b -> b) -> a -> a|
A generic transformation that maps over the immediate subterms
The default definition instantiates the type constructor c in the
type of gfoldl to an identity datatype constructor, using the
isomorphism pair as injection and projection.
|gmapQl :: (r -> r' -> r) -> r -> (forall a . Data a => a -> r') -> a -> r|
|A generic query with a left-associative binary operator
|gmapQr :: (r' -> r -> r) -> r -> (forall a . Data a => a -> r') -> a -> r|
|A generic query with a right-associative binary operator
|gmapQ :: (forall a . Data a => a -> u) -> a -> [u]|
|A generic query that processes the immediate subterms and returns a list
|gmapQi :: Int -> (forall a . Data a => a -> u) -> a -> u|
|A generic query that processes one child by index (zero-based)
|gmapM :: Monad m => (forall a . Data a => a -> m a) -> a -> m a|
A generic monadic transformation that maps over the immediate subterms
The default definition instantiates the type constructor c in
the type of gfoldl to the monad datatype constructor, defining
injection and projection using return and >>=.
|gmapMp :: MonadPlus m => (forall a . Data a => a -> m a) -> a -> m a|
|Transformation of at least one immediate subterm does not fail
|gmapMo :: MonadPlus m => (forall a . Data a => a -> m a) -> a -> m a|
|Transformation of one immediate subterm with success
|(Data a, Data b) => Data (a, b)|
|(Data a, Data b, Data c) => Data (a, b, c)|
|(Data a, Data b, Data c, Data d) => Data (a, b, c, d)|
|(Data a, Data b, Data c, Data d, Data e) => Data (a, b, c, d, e)|
|(Data a, Data b, Data c, Data d, Data e, Data f) => Data (a, b, c, d, e, f)|
|(Data a, Data b, Data c, Data d, Data e, Data f, Data g) => Data (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)|
|(Data a, Data b) => Data (a -> b)|
|Typeable a => Data (ForeignPtr a)|
|Typeable a => Data (IO a)|
|Typeable a => Data (IORef a)|
|Data a => Data (IntMap a)|
|Typeable a => Data (MVar a)|
|Data a => Data (Maybe a)|
|Typeable a => Data (Ptr a)|
|(Data a, Integral a) => Data (Ratio a)|
|Typeable a => Data (STM a)|
|Data a => Data (Seq a)|
|(Data a, Ord a) => Data (Set a)|
|Typeable a => Data (StablePtr a)|
|Typeable a => Data (TVar a)|
|Data a => Data (Tree a)|
|Data a => Data (ViewL a)|
|Data a => Data (ViewR a)|
|Data a => Data [a]|
|(Typeable a, Data b, Ix a) => Data (Array a b)|
|(Data a, Data b) => Data (Either a b)|
|(Data a, Data b, Ord a) => Data (FiniteMap a b)|
|(Data k, Data a, Ord k) => Data (Map k a)|
|(Typeable s, Typeable a) => Data (ST s a)|
|data DataType |
|Representation of datatypes.
A package of constructor representations with names of type and module.
|mkDataType :: String -> [Constr] -> DataType|
|Constructs an algebraic datatype
|mkIntType :: String -> DataType|
|Constructs the Int type
|mkFloatType :: String -> DataType|
|Constructs the Float type
|mkStringType :: String -> DataType|
|Constructs the String type
|mkNorepType :: String -> DataType|
|Constructs a non-representation for a non-presentable type
|dataTypeName :: DataType -> String|
|Gets the type constructor including the module
|data DataRep |
|Public representation of datatypes
|dataTypeRep :: DataType -> DataRep|
|Gets the public presentation of a datatype
|repConstr :: DataType -> ConstrRep -> Constr|
|Look up a constructor by its representation
|isAlgType :: DataType -> Bool|
|Test for an algebraic type
|dataTypeConstrs :: DataType -> [Constr]|
|Gets the constructors of an algebraic datatype
|indexConstr :: DataType -> ConIndex -> Constr|
|Gets the constructor for an index (algebraic datatypes only)
|maxConstrIndex :: DataType -> ConIndex|
|Gets the maximum constructor index of an algebraic datatype
|isNorepType :: DataType -> Bool|
|Test for a non-representable type
|Data constructor representations
|data Constr |
|Representation of constructors
|type ConIndex = Int|
|Unique index for datatype constructors,
counting from 1 in the order they are given in the program text.
|data Fixity |
|Fixity of constructors
|mkConstr :: DataType -> String -> [String] -> Fixity -> Constr|
|Constructs a constructor
|mkIntConstr :: DataType -> Integer -> Constr|
|mkFloatConstr :: DataType -> Double -> Constr|
|mkStringConstr :: DataType -> String -> Constr|
|constrType :: Constr -> DataType|
|Gets the datatype of a constructor
|data ConstrRep |
|Public representation of constructors
|constrRep :: Constr -> ConstrRep|
|Gets the public presentation of constructors
|constrFields :: Constr -> [String]|
|Gets the field labels of a constructor
|constrFixity :: Constr -> Fixity|
|Gets the fixity of a constructor
|Convenience function: algebraic data types
|constrIndex :: Constr -> ConIndex|
|Gets the index of a constructor (algebraic datatypes only)
|From strings to constructors and vice versa: all data types
|showConstr :: Constr -> String|
|Gets the string for a constructor
|readConstr :: DataType -> String -> Maybe Constr|
|Lookup a constructor via a string
|Convenience functions: take type constructors apart
|tyconUQname :: String -> String|
|Gets the unqualified type constructor:
drop *.*.*... before name
|tyconModule :: String -> String|
|Gets the module of a type constructor:
take *.*.*... before name
|Generic operations defined in terms of gunfold
|fromConstr :: Data a => Constr -> a|
|Build a term skeleton
|fromConstrB :: Data a => (forall a . Data a => a) -> Constr -> a|
|Build a term and use a generic function for subterms
|fromConstrM :: (Monad m, Data a) => (forall a . Data a => m a) -> Constr -> m a|
|Monadic variation on fromConstrB
|Produced by Haddock version 0.7|