[M.O.S]

Adjusted Service Rating (ASR) is the “Point System” as initially proposed by General George C. Marshall, and amended by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson on May 10, 1945 (introduced May 12) . The Adjusted Service Rating Score (ASRS), was based on the “Point System”, whereby a soldier was awarded a number of Points for his months of service, for the medals he received, for the combat stars earned by his unit, and for the number of children he had … the higher the score, the higher the probability to be sent home for demobilization and discharge ! The “Credit” or “Points” were indicated and totalled on the Adjusted Service Rating Card (ASRC), W.D., A.G.O., Form N°.163 – these cards were filled by Army Personnel Offices and checked by the individual serviceman before being signed and sent in . At the end of WWII, servicemen were constantly harassing Company Clerks to get their Adjusted Service Rating Cards corrected and updated (subject Cards listed Service Credit Overseas Credit Combat Credit Parenthood Credit) .

”Points” for discharge from the Army were to be totalled as follows :
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1. Each Month in Service……………………………………………. 1 Point
2. Each Month in Service Overseas …………………………………1 Point
3. Each Combat Award (including each Medal and each Bronze Service
Star, or battle participation star) ……………………………………..5 Points
4. Each dependent Child under 18 (maximum 3 Children) …….…… 12 Points

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Above 4 items are the ONLY criteria for which “Points” were awarded (for total time of Service performed since 16 September 1940) . No “Points” will be awarded for age, marriage, or dependents other than children under 18 . The magic number of “Points” to be obtained was 85 . With fewer “Points”, further service would be required ! While no similar critical score was established for Officers, before the surrender of Japan, their score had to be taken into account in determining whether they would serve again in combat (but also efficiency, and military necessity were important factors) … the high-score Officer might thus reasonably expect for an early Discharge . After V-J Day, the Critical Score was already down to 80 Points, and in response to political pressures (Bring the Boys home !) repeated downward revisions were to follow . Critical scores were set for Army Ground Forces, Army Service Forces, Army Air Forces, Women’s Army Corps, holders of the Medal of Honor, and married members of the WAC . Enlisted Men would be processed at 22 Reception Centers, and if non-essential, would be transferred to Separation Centers, where they would be discharged in 48 hours ...

Interim minimum score for eligibility for Discharge of Enlisted Men – this score is not final, the final score for Discharge will be based on a complete tabulation of Points of all Soldiers – it is expected to be the same or slightly lower > 85 Points .

Interim minimum score for eligibility for Discharge of Enlisted WACs > 44 Points .

Notes : at the end of WWII, and after the defeat of Nazi Germany, Readjustment Regulations for a planning process for Redeployment of Army Personnel were introduced 15 September 1944, and revised 15 February and 5 March 1945 – a simple general principle was to be applied – those who had fought longest and hardest should be returned home for Discharge … so, the Army divided units of the E.T.O. into 4 categories :

(I)
(II)



(III)

(IV)

those units designated as Occupation Forces (such as the Third and Seventh Armies)
those Overseas for less than one year, that were to be transferred to the Pacific, either directly, or by way of the United States – (A) to be shipped directly to the Pacific (B) to be shipped to the Pacific by way of the US (C) to be shipped to the US to be placed in strategic reserve
units to be organized (or re-organized) in the E.T.O., either as Occupation Forces or as Transferees to the P.T.O. (or to be inactivated w/i the Theater)
units with long Overseas Service that were to remain in the Theater only while needed, and then to be returned to the ZI for inactivation .



Meanwhile ‘green’ troops from US Training Centers would arrive to replace the departing Veterans ! Confusion did result from its application, and transfer, and redeployment did not always take place as foreseen or planned … loss, departure, replacement, normal attrition, would seriously compromise some essential services in the E.T.O. … by end of September 1945, the War Department redesignated its units in Europe either as, Occupation Forces, (those with the lowest score, and those who volunteered, whose job was to stay in occupied territory), Redeployment Forces (those with the highest score, whose next stop was home in the ZI), or Liquidation Forces (servicemen with a middle score of 60-79 points, whose special task consisted in closing out facilities that were no longer needed), of course, a professional soldier could always volunteer to stay in Europe … however, theory often failed in practice, departure of high-score personnel, and normal attrition caused by sickness, compassionate leaves, etc. seriously affected the situation in some Theaters, the worst effect being the continuing loss of experienced line Officers and NCOs .

Critical Scores for Medical Officers, received by end May 1945, varied with the Corps – for Hygienists and Dietitians the figure was 62 Points, for Physical Therapists, 65, for Nurses, 71, for MAC Officers, 88, and for MC Officers, 85 and plus (according to Specialty) . The overall program was usually carried out faithfully until end July 1945, but by that date, demands for shipping to move men & equipment to the Pacific were so great as to preclude movement of Medical units to the United States for inactivation and disbandment . Therefore it was decided to inactivate Category IV units in the Mediterranean Theater . All transfers to the Pacific were abruptly halted with announcement of the Japanese surrender on August 14, 1945 …

By 1 December 1945, a new policy applied whereby servicemen would be eligible for Discharge based on a combination of ASR score and length of service !

All Enlisted fathers with 3 or more Children (under 18 Years of Age) were immediately eligible for Discharge, irrespectively of their length of Service .


sample of ASRC, including discussions on the subject, as published in the Paris Edition of the
“Stars and Stripes” daily newspaper, dated May 11, 1945


Remark : during the War in Korea, a similar Point System was introduced in September 1950, that tried to take into account the nature of individual service, when determining eligibility for rotation home to the United States . A serviceman earned 4 Points for every month he served in combat, 2 Points for rear-echelon duty, and 1 Point for duty elsewhere in the Far East . EM initially needed 43 Points, while Officers required 55 Points to be eligible (later reduced, in June 1952 to respectively 36 and 37 points) . The system’s major drawback was that while servicemen with WWII combat experience were rotated home, they were replaced by ‘green’ recruits or ROTC graduates without any command and/or combat experience, which in the end started affecting combat proficiency …

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“ MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY ”

M.O.S. (Military Occupational Specialty)
Military Occupational Classification is the awarding of an M.O.S. number based on all pertinent data concerning ability, education, training, intelligence, aptitude, occupational history, interests, personal traits, military experience, and other demonstrated qualifications – such information will be clearly recorded so that each individual’s skills will be evaluated and used to the end that the new serviceman will be assigned to duties in which he is of the most value to the country’s Armed Forces .

…Of all provisions of the Army’s Classification System those concerned with occupational skills were the most elaborate and the most refined ! The Army sought to meet its needs for specialists with men experienced in related occupations in civilian life . The purpose was the very important one of speeding up Mobilization and Training by utilizing the full capacities of the available manpower . Specialists, in this connection, included those pursuing relatively simple trades which could be learned in a few weeks or months – the need of the Army for specialists was made clear to the public, especially in the period before the Declaration of War, when the distatefulness of compulsory Military Training could be relieved by pointing out its vocational value . The publicizing of technical requirements produced an expectation among many Inductees that they could best contribute to the war effort by continuing with their usual occupations, somewhat modified, in the Army ! The satisfaction or disappointment of these expectations became an important facotor in morale …

To effect proper classification on all jobs performed by Enlisted Men, called Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) were given Specification Serial Numbers (SSN) on a scale from 001 to 999 . Numbers below 500 designated military jobs having corresponding occupations in civilian life – such as Automobile Mechanic (014), Cable Splicer (039), Cook (060), Photographer (152), Sewing Machine Operator (200), Tailor (234), Light-Truck Driver (345) and Clerk-Typist (405) . Numbers above 500 designated occupations having no parallel in civilian life, such as Ammo Bearer (504), Light Machine Gunner (604), Antitank Gunner (610), Rifleman (745), or Military Policeman (677), Bugler (803), and Mine Detector Operator (968) . An exception in the numbers above 500 was Laborer (590), and another special case was Basic (521), since Basic Privates might be trained for ANY job as desired by local Commanders .

At the Reception Center the newly inducted man, after passing an interview, with or without vocational tests, was classified according to his occupational experience or aptitude – he received the SSN (Specification Serial Number) most closely corresponding to his main civilian skill . This number inevitably fell in the group below 500 ! To fill the need for SSNs above 500, the classifying Officer attempted to find related civilian trades – a man classified as Steward (124) might be recommended for training as a Mess Sergeant (824), but for fighting jobs, such as Rifleman (745), Tank Driver (736) or Gunner (603) , there were, of course, no civilian equivalents ! Army requirements in terms of SSNs were formulated primarily in a unit’s Tables of Organization (T/O), which showed what jobs existed in every unit and how many men were needed for each type of job - from these T/Os of all military units, the Adjutant General’s Office computed “Requirement and Replacement Rates, Military Specialists” – and these were for the guidance of Reception Centers in the assignment of newly inducted men …these Rates also included figures for the overall SSN needs of each Arm and Service, and equally served as guides in assigning newly inducted servicemen to Replacement Training Centers .

Occupational classification, though not always adapted primarily to the needs of the combat arms, was nevertheless the main basis of assignment . Reception Centers, in filling requisitions of units or Replacement Training Centers for personnel, supplied specialists in the proportions called for in the Requirement and Replacement Rates – for Boilermakers, Bricklayers, Rivayers, Riveters and Steelworkers, the suggested assignment was the Corps of Engineers, for Longshoremen it was the Quartermaster Corps, for Detectives, Police Officers, and Vice-Squad Patrolmen it was the Provost Marshal General’s Office or the Corps of Military Police … Miners might fit into either the Corps of Engineers or the Infantry, Bookkeepers, File Clerks, Piano Tuners, Shipping Clerks, and Teachers were recommended for ‘any Arm or Service’ …

In order to improve occupational classification in general, a series of Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) Tests were introduced (before end 1944) for all services in the Army Ground Forces (AGF) – they usually consisted of 2 principal parts : (1) questions covering the character of the duties required of the individual, and (2) practical application of ‘specialist’ techniques . Some of these Tests were even supplemented with more exercises designed to check the qualification of units to perform their primary missions (e.g. Quartermaster and Medical Department) . These programs produced a wider, more uniform, and more thorough checking of technical proficiency throughout the Army Ground Forces !
Note : Officers, either directing or supervising certain ‘operations’ also received occupational classification, while their specific MOS numbers were represented by groups of 4 numerals, such as – Postal Officer (0030) , Signal Officer (0210), Radio Officer (0500), Glider Pilot (1026), Anesthetist (3115), Ammunition Supply Officer (4514), Public Relations Officer (5401), Legal Assistance Officer (8120), Provost Marshal (9100), Camouflage Officer (9511), etc.


Part of T/O & E 200-3 dated 26 October 1944,
covering Army Special Troops –
column 2 lists SSN of Officers,
NCOs and EM (plse see below)


Above is part of a T/O & E Document listing numbers of personnel, cadre, weapons, and vehicles . This Table already superseded T/O 200-3 July 1, 1942, including C1 December 23, 1942, C2 December 26, 1943 and C3 March 30, 1944 . Column 2 lists (as indicated above) the respective MOS numbers for Officers and Men alike : Officers > such as Headquarters Commandant/Colonel (2901) Medical, General Duty/Major (3100) Executive Officer/Captain (2901) Dental Corps/Captain or First Lieutenant (3170) Medical, General Duty/Captain or First Lieutenant (3100) Executive Officer, Assistant/First Lieutenant (2901) – NCOs > Sergeant Major/Technical Sergeant (502) Supply Sergeant/Technical Sergeant (821) Medical/Staff Sergeant (861) Medical/Buck Sergeant (861) – NCOs/EM > General Clerk/Tec 3/Tec 4/Tec 5/Pfc/Pvt (055) Clerk Typist/ditto (405) Light Truck Driver/ditto (345) Orderly/ditto (590) Dental Technician/ditto (855) Surgical Technician/ditto (861) Basic Medical/ditto (657) Basic/ditto (521)

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