History of the Order

 

by Sister Kathleen O'Neill
Mississippi Abbey, Dubuque, Iowa, USA

 

XXI. Arts

Primary Sources

Vita Prima Bernardi, Chapter 21

Capitula, cap 25 & 26

St Bernard, Apologia, ch 29.

Aelred, Speculum Caritatis, II:24:70-73 (ch 24 on vision; ch 23 on hearing)

Coucke, Marie-Therese, Alfons de Belie & Vedastus Verstegen, edd. Goddelijcke Lofsanghen door Gullielmus vander Machtelt, monnik van Boudelo, 1645-1661. Sint-Niklaas: Culturele Kring Boudelo, Jan 1995. Reproduction of mss of a Cistercian poet and composer. Rvw Citeaux 46 (1995)175-6.

MUSICA BAVARICA, Disk 3. Part of a series on Bavarian music, this record has performances of music by 18th c Cistercian composers. Notice in Citeaux 21.1 (1970) 75.

Secondary Sources

#Studies in Cistercian Art and Architecture, ed Meredith Parsons Lillich

Vol 1, CS-66, 1982

Vol 2, CS-69, 1984

Vol 3, CS-89, 1987

Vol 4, CS-134, 1993. Rvw Citeaux 46 (1995) 177-9; CSQ 31 (1996) 514-6.

Vol 5, CS-167, 1998.

#fiche 39, "Artistic Life"

#fiche 55, "The Flowering of Architecture"

#fiche 95, "Culture in Cistercian Abbeys"

#fiche 96, "Cistercian Architecture"

#L'esprit de cîteaux. Zodiaque, 1987. Intro, Raymond Oursel. Exquisite photographs interspersed with texts from Bernard on the Song.

#Senanque Abbey. Moisenay, Editions Gaud, 1993. English version. Many superb color photos.

Anderes, B & P Hoegger. Die Glasgemälde im Kloster Wettingen. Baden (Switzerland), Baden-Verlag, 1988. Rvw Citeaux 41 (1990) 515-6.

#Aubert, Marcel, with collaboration of the Marquise de Maillé. L'Architecture Cistercienne en France, 2 vols. 2nd ed. Paris, Vanoest, 1947.

 

#Benešovská, Klára. "Aula Regia près de Prague et Mons Regalis près de Paris," Citeaux 47 (1996) 231-43.

#Beuer-Szlechter, H V. «Les débuts de l’art cistercien en Irlande d’après les vestiges des abbayes de Mellifont (Louth) et de Baltinglass (Wicklow). Citeaux 21 (1970) 201-218.

#Beliaev, L. “Archaeology: Near East,” Encyclopedia of Monasticism, 42-49.

#Beliaev, L. “Archaeology: Russia,” Encyclopedia of Monasticism, 49-52.

#Bonde, S & C Maines, «Note sur la fouille de l’église de saint Norbert à Prémontré: son importance pour la première architecture cistercienne.» Citeaux 38 (1987) 100-101.

Braunfels, W. Abendländische Klosterbaukunst. Cologne, Dumont-Schaubert, 1969. Rvw EM Citeaux 22.2 (1971) 208-9. Pp 111-152 deal with the Cistercians. Sounds interesting.

#Brooke, Christopher. The Monastic World: 1000-1300, photos Wim Swaan. New York, Random House, 1974. Ch 9, "The Cistercians," pp 135-162; ch 11, "On abbesses and prioresses," 167-180; pp 172 bottom - 178, pictures & text on Cistercians.

#Bruzelius, Caroline A. «The Twelfth-Century Church at Ourscamp.» Speculum 56#1, 28-40.

#Chevrot, J-F. “Observations archéologiques sur les premières constructions de l’abbaye de Noirlac” in L’Ordre cistercian et le Berry (Conseil général du Cher, Bourges, 15-16 Mai 1998) 141-147.

Coomans, T (author) & Vermeeren, T (producer). L'Architecture cistercienne/Cistercian Architecture, CD-I [L'Europe face à son passé #1]. PACT Belgium & Philips, 1993. The first of a series of interactive CD's on European culture. Description by author & producer, Citeaux 44 (1993) 440-41.

#Coomans, Thomas. “Le pupitre de la salle du chapitre de Soleilmont et l’abbesse Jeanne de Trazegnies (vers 1500).” Citeaux 52 (2001.1-2) 121-138.

Coppack, Glyn. The White Monks: The Cistercians in Britain 1128-1540. Stroud, Tempus Publishing, 1998. Rvw Citeaux 52 (2001.1-2) 174.

De la Torre, J M. “El arte cisterciense, expresión de una mística: Teología del icono y espritualidad cisterciense: una aproximación a la simplicidad de Císter,” Nova et Vetera (Zamora) 22 (1998) 223-253. Rvw COCR 61.4 (1999) [528]. Sounds very good.

Dimier, A. "Saint Bernard et l'Art," Sint Bernardus van Clairvaux, Achel, 1953, pp?

(#)Dimier, A.  Les Moines Batisseurs. Paris, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1964. #ET of author’s revised ed, Stones Laid before the Lord: Architecture and Monastic Life, tr GilChrist Lavigne, CF-152, 1999.

Dimier, A. «A propos de l’architecture des abbayes cisterciennes de Pologne,» Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 9 (1966) 59-60. Brf rvw Citeaux 21.1 (1970) 87.

Dimier, A. L’art cistercien hors de France. Paris, Zodiaque, 1971. Rvw EM Citeaux 22.3-4 (1971) 348.

#Dimier, A. «Ménagerie cistercienne,» Citeaux 24 (1973) 5-30. On animals in various aspects of Cistercian life, most notably in Cistercian literature and coats-of-arms.

#Dimier, A. «Héraldique cistercienne,» Citeaux 24 (1973) 267-82. Includes a bibliography.

#Dimier, A. «Un portrait inconnu de Philippine de Torcq, Abbesse de Flines (1561-1571),» Citeaux 24 (1973) 62-64. Includes black-and-white photo of the portrait.

#Dimier, A. «En marge du centenaire bernardin. L’église de Clairvaux,» Citeaux 25 (1974) 309-314.

#Dimier, A. «L’architecture des églises des moniales cisterciennes,» Citeaux 25 (1974) 8-23.

#Dimier, Anselme & Jean Porcher. L'Art Cistercien: France. 3rd ed. Zodiaque, 1982.

#Duby, Georges, Saint Bernard: L'Art Cistercien.  Paris, Flammarion, 1979.

#Eberle, J. «Zisterzienserbauten - Wie sie sind, Wie sie waren. Ein neuer Planatlas,» Citeaux 24 (1973) 319-26.

Eydoux,  H. "Les fouilles de l'abbatiale d'Himmerod et la notion d'un 'plan bernardin'," Bulletin monumental CIS (1953) 29-36.

#Feiss, Hugh, OSB, "Art and Monasticism," ABR 42:3 (1991) 314-333.  Rvw CD, CSQ 28 (1993) [38]. Largely on describing & applying Bernard’s values.

#France, James. The Cistercians in Medieval Art. CS-170, 1998. More on art about Cistercians than on art by Cistercians. Rvw CSQ 34.1 (1999) 115-6; Citeaux 50.1-2 (1999), 202-6; COCR 61.4 (1999) [528-9].

#Frisque, Xavier. «St Bernard and the Sung Word: A Reading of St Bernard’s Letter to the Abbot of Montieramey,» Liturgy 27/2-3 (1993) 63-83.

Golob, Nataša. Twelfth-Century Cistercian Manuscripts: the sitticum Collection. Ljubljana, Sloveska Knjiga, in conjunction with Harvey Miller Publishers, London, 1996. Rvw Citeaux 49 (1998) 394-6.

Gonzalez Fernandez, E. El Arte Cisterciense en León. León, 1988. Rvw Citeaux 40 91989) 488-9.

#Hall, Jackie. “English Cistercian Gatehouse Chapels,” Citeaux 52 (2001) 61-91.

#Hammer, G. «Das Kamper Graduale,» Citeaux 22 (1971) 48-60.

#Heutger, Nicolas. "Notes on Cistercian Architectural Remains and Daily Life in Lower Saxony," SMCH X, 148-150.

Hüschen, H. «Zisterzienser,» Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart col1322-1336. Overview of Cistercian music. Brf rvw Citeaux 21 (1970) 189-90.

#Hufgard, M Kilian, "Saint Bernard of Clairvaux: Friend or Foe of the Arts?" SMCH IX, 62-71.

#Hufgard, M Kilian OSU. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux: A Theory of Art Formulated From His Writings and Illustrated in Twelfth-Century Works of Art. Mediaval Studies, Vol 2. Lewiston NY, The Edwin Mellen Press, 1989

#Kalina, Pavel. "Mater et Sponsa, Einige Bermerkungen zur Kunst der Zisterzienser in Böhmen," Citeaux 47 (1996) 313-25.

#Kienzle, Beverly Mayne. "Verbum Dei et verba Bernardi: The function of Language in Bernard's Second Sermon for Peter and Paul" in John R Sommerfeldt [ed], Bernardus Magister: Papers Presented at the Nonacentenary Celebration of the Birth of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (CS-135, 1992) 149-159.

#Kinder, Terryl N. "As Above, So Below: Architecture and Archeology at Villers-la-Grange at Pontigny" in The Joy of Learning and the Love of God: Essays in Honor of Jean Leclercq. (CS-160, 1995) 157-177.

#Kinder, Terryl N. "Some observations on the origins of Pontigny and its first church," Citeaux 31 (1980) 9-19.

#Kinder, Terryl N. L’Europe cistercienne. FT: Divina Cabo. Zodiaque, 1997 (English original has not been published). Rvw CSQ 34.1 (1999) 114-5; Citeuax 49 (1998) 396-8.

#Kirk, Malcolm. Silent Spaces: The Last of the Great Aisled Barns. Boston, Bullfinch Press (Little, Brown & Co) 1994. Includes beautiful pictures of some Cistercian barns.

#Kutzner, Marian. "Die Mittelalterliche Architektur der Zisterzienserklöster in Schlesien," Citeaux 47 (1996) 247-59.

#La Corte, Daniel M. "Flawed Portrayals of Bernard of Clairvaux's Attitude Towards Art," CSQ 29 (1994) 451-470. Rvw COCR 59 (1997) [127-8].

Leclercq, J. "Essais sur l'esthétique de S Bernard," Studi medievali 3rd series, IX, 2 (1968) 688-728. On literary aesthetics. Rvw CD, CSQ 7 (1972) [114-5].

Líbal, Dobroslav. "Les transformations de l'architecture cistercienne en Europe au Moyen Âge et leur influence dans les ouvrages de l'Ordre en Bohême et en Moravie," Citeaux 47 (1996) 217-27.

#Lillich, Meredith Parsons, "Recent Scholarship Concerning Cistercian Windows" in S&S, 233-262. Good bibliog.

#Lloveras i Montserrat, J. "La lumière à Sénanque," Citeaux 44 (1993) 385-431. Has a good deal on architecture & geometry.

#Magirius, Henirich. "Architektur der Zisterzienserklöster in der Lausitz," Citeaux 47 (1996) 263-82.

#Maître, Claire. "Authority and Reason in the Cistercian Theory of Music," CSQ 29 (1994) 197-208.  Also good bibliog.

#Matthew, Donald. Atlas of Medieval Europe. New York, Facts on File, 1992. pp 166-167, "Cathedral Building," great drawins and descriptions.

#McWilliams, P. “Archaeology: Western Europe,” Encyclopedia of Monasticism 52-54.

#McWilliams, P. “Architecture: Western Christian Monasteries,” Encyclopedia of Monasticism, 77-82.

#Melczer, Elisabeth and Eileen Soldwedel, "Monastic Goals in the Aesthetics of St Bernard" in CS-66, 31-44.  Has good input on light & on simplicity.

Monterosso, Raffaello. La riforma musicale (Cremona, 1955). On St Bernard.

Monterosso, Raffaello. «Canto Gregoriano e Riforma tra Cluniacensi e Cistercensi» in Chiesa e Reforma nella spiritualitá del sec. XI (Todi, 6th Congress (1963) for the study of medieval spirituality, 1968), 191-219. Rvw Citeaux 21 (1970) 317.

#Nichols, J A. "The Architecture and Physical Features of an English Cistercian Nunnery" in SMCH III, 319-328.

#Nichols, J A. "The Cistercian Nunnery of Swine Priory: Its Church and Choir Stalls" in S&S, 273-303.

#Nichols, John A. "Medieval English Cistercian Nunneries: Their Art and Physical Remains," Mélanges Anselme Dimier Tome III, vol 5, 151-176.

Norton, Christopher & David Park, eds. Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles. Cambridge, 1986. Rvw EM, Citeaux 40 (1989) 490-91.

#Pastoureau, Michel. “Les cisterciens et la couleur au XIIe siècle” in L’Ordre cistercian et le Berry (Conseil général du Cher, Bourges, 15-16 Mai 1998) 21-30. Discusses the habit, the church, and St Bernard’s writings.

#Pineault, J & T Coomans. "Le 'Soleil de Villers', cycle iconographique cistercien du XVIIe siècle," Citeaux 45 (1994) 121-51.

Pressouyre, Leon, ed. L'espace cistercien. Paris, Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 1994. Rvw Citeaux 46 (1995) 389-90.

#Pruit, Thomas. “A Cistercian Church in Dallas” in Cistercians in Texas: Commemorating the 900th Anniversary of Cistercian Beginnings and 40 Years of cistercian Life in Texas (Irving, Texas, Our Lady of Dallas, 1998) 105-111.

#Robinson, David, ed. The Cistercian Abbeys of Britain: Far from the Concourse of Men. CS-179, 1998. Rvw Citeaux 52 (2001) 182-3.

Rodrigues, J & X C Valle Pérez, edd. Arte de Cister em Portugal e Galiza / Arte del Císter en Galicia y Portugal. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian / Fondación Pedro Barrié de la Maza, 1998. Text in Portuguese or Spanish, with FT. Rvw COCR 61.4 (1999) [528].

Rüffer, Jens. Orbis Cisterciensis: Zur Geschichte der monastischen ¬sthetischen Kultur im 12. Jahrhundert. (Studien zur Geschichted, Kunst und Kultur der Zisterzienser 6). Berlin, Lukas-Verlag, 1999. Rvw Citeaux 52 (2001.1-2) 181-2.

#Rudolph, Conrad. "The 'Principal Founders' and the Early Artistic Legislation of Citeaux," CS-89, 1-45.

Rudolph, Conrad. The "Things of Greater Importance": Bernard of Clairvaux's Apologia and the Medieval Attitude toward Art. Philadelphia, U of Penn Press, 1990. Rvw:

Michel Coune, OSB, COCR 55 (1993) 364-372

S W Smith, CSQ 26 (1991) [532-4]

David Bell, Citeaux 44 (1993) 468-9.

#Rudolph, C. "The scholarship on Bernard of Clairvaux's Apologia," Citeaux 40 (1989) 69-110. Includes substantial bibliography.

#Rudolph, C. Violence & Daily Life: Reading, art, and Polemics in the Citeaux “Moralia in Job”. Princeton UP, 1997.

#Schaefer, Jean Owens. "The Earliest Churches of the Cistercian Order," CS-66, 1-12.

*Schlink, W. Zwischen Cluny und Clairvaux. Die Kathedrale von Langres und die burgundischer Architektur des 12 Jhdt. (Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte, 4), Walter de Gruyter & Co, Berlin, 1970. viii-159 pp, 122 ill. Rvw E.M., CSQ 7 (1972) [110]. Sounds fascinating.

Sennhauser, Hans Rudolf, ed. Zisterzienserbauten in der Schweiz. Neue Forschungsergebnisse zur Arch¬ologie und Kunstgeschichte. Verlag der Fachvereine Zürich, 1990. Vol 1: Frauenklöster; Vol 2, Männerklöster. Rvw Citeaux 49 (1998/1-2) 202-3.

Simson, Otto von. The Gothic Cathedral: Origines of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. Bollingen Series XLVIII.3rd ed. Princeton U Press, 1988. See especially ch 2, "Measure and Light," 21-58.

#Sinclair, T. Architecture: Armenian Monasteries,” Encyclopedia of Monasticism, 54-55.

#Stalley, Roger. The Cistercian Monasteries of Ireland: An Account of the History, Art and Architecture of the White Monks in Ireland from 1142 to 1540. New Haven, Yale U Press, 1987. Rvw P Hart, CSQ 23 (1988) [191-2]. Rvw Citeaux 38 (1987) 365-6.

#Stiegman, Emero. "St Bernard: The Aesthetics of Authenticity," CS-69, 1-13.

#Stiegman, Emero. "The Light Imagery of Saint Bernard's Spirituality and Its Evidence in Cistercian Architecture (being revised)" in The Joy of Learning and the Love of God: Essays in Honor of Jean Leclercq. (CS-160, 1995), 327-388.

#Stiegman, Emero. "A Tradition of Aesthetics in Saint Bernard" in John R Sommerfeldt [ed], Bernardus Magister: Papers Presented at the Nonacentenary Celebration of the Birth of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (CS-135, 1992) 129-147.

#Stock, Augustine OSB. "A Sounding Vase at Fountains Abbey?" CSQ 23 (1988), 190-191.

#Stock, Augustine OSB. "Resonances from sounding Vases," CSQ 24 (1989) 154-160.

Stohlmann, Jòrgen. “Zur Buchillustration bei den Zisterziensern: Die heimliche Kontroverse zwischen Bernhard von Clairvaux und Stephan harding,” CChr 103 (1996) 29-40. Rvw COCR 60 (1998.4) [384-5].

#Teteriatnicov, N. “Architecture: Eastern Christian Monasteries,” Encyclopedia of Monasticism 66-72.

#Tobin, Stephen. The Cistercians: Monks and Monasteries of Europe. Woodstock NY, Overlook Press, 1995. Exquisite photos, 50 color & 50 black & white. Rvw Citeaux 48.3-4 (1997) 395-6, mixed

FT: Les Cisterciens. Moines et monastères d’Europe. Tr Sr Emmanuel Billoteau. Paris, Cerf, 1995. Rvw COCR 59 (1997.2) [193-5], largely negative.

#Vernhes, Claude. “Analyse théorique de l’acoustique des églises des “Trois Soeurs” de Provence,” Citeaux 50 (1999) 45-64.

Viti, Goffredo. Architettura cistercense, Fontenay e le abbazie in Italia dal 1120 al 1160. Florence, 1995, 348 pp. Rvw Citeaux 49 (1998) 403-4.

Weinrich, Lorenz. «Musik des 12n Jahrhunderts: Zisterzienser-Liturgie,» no further reference.

#Williams, David H. Chapters 9-11 («The Monastic Buildings,» «The Abbey Churches» and «The Claustral Comples») in The Cistercians in the Early Middle Ages (Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Cromwell Press, 1998) 194-257.

#Zadnikar, M. "Le bâtisseur bourguignon, Michael, en Slovénie," Citeaux 31 (1980) 267-71.

Zakin, Helen Jackson. French Cistercian Grisaille Glass. New York, 1979.

#Zakin, Helen. "A Sixteenth Century Heraldic Stained Glass Panel from La Maigrauge" in The Joy of Learning and the Love of God: Essays in Honor of Jean Leclercq. (CS-160, 1995), 179-186.

**Zaluska, Yolanta, L'enluminure et le Scriptorium de Cîteaux au XIIe siècle. Cîteaux, Commentarii Cistercienses; Studia et Documenta, Vol IV, 1989. Rvw N S O'Hara, CSQ 26 (91) [535-7]. Rvw Citeaux 43 (1992) 476-7.